Civil Servants Act, 1973 (Act No.LXXI of 1973)
An Act to regulate the appointment of persons to, and the terms and
Service of persons in, the service of Pakistan.
WHEREAS it is expedient to regulate by law, the appointment of persons to,
and the terms and conditions of service of persons, in the service of
Pakistan, and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary
It is hereby enacted as follows:-
1. Short title, application and commencement.-(1) This Act may be called
the Civil Servants Act, 1973.
(2) it applies to all civil servants wherever they may be.
(3) It shall come into force at once.
2. Definitions.-(1) In this act, unless there is anything repugnant in the
subject or context,-
(a) “ad hoc appointment” means appointment of a duly qualified person made
otherwise than in accordance with the prescribed method of recruitment,
pending recruitment in accordance with such method;
(b) “civil servant” means a person who is a member of an All-Pakistan
Service or of a civil service of the Federation, or who holds a civil post
in connection with the affairs of the Federation, including any such post
connected with defence, but does include-
(i) a person who is on deputation to the Federation from any Province or
(ii) a person who is employed on contract, or on work-charged basis or who
is paid from contingencies; or
(iii) a person who is “worker” or “workman” as defined in the Factories
Act, (XXV of 1934), or the Workman’s Compensation Act, 1923 (VIII of
(c) “initial appointment” mans appointment made otherwise than by
promotion or transfer.
(d) “pay” means the amount drawn monthly by a civil servant as pay and
includes technical pay, special pay, personal pay and any other emoluments
declared by the prescribed authority to be pay;
(e) “permanent post” means a post sanctioned without limit of time;
(f) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules;
(g) “rules” means rules made or deemed to have been made under this Act;
(h) “selection authority” means the Federal Public Service Commission, a
departmental selection board, departmental selection committee or other
authority or body on the recommendation of or in consultation with which
any appointment or promotion, as may be prescribed, is made; and
(i) “temporary post” means a post other than a permanent post.
(2) For the purposes of this Act, an appointment, whether by promotion or
otherwise, shall be deemed to have been made on regular basis if it is
made in the prescribed manner.
CHAPTER II.-TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SERVICE OF CIVIL SERVANTS.
3. Terms and conditions.- (1) The terms and conditions of service of a
civil servant shall be as provided in this Act and the rules.
(2) The terms and conditi9ons of service of any person to whom this Act
applies shall not be varied to his disadvantage.
4. Tenure of office of civil Servants.- Every civil servant shall hold
office during the pleasure of the President.
5. Appointments.- Appointments to an All-Pakistan Service or to a civil
service of the Federation or to a civil post in connection with the
affairs of the Federation, including any civil post connected with
defence, shall be made in the prescribed manner by the President or by a
person authorized by the President in that behalf.
6. Probation.- (1) An initial appointment to a service or post referred to
in section 5, not being an ad hoc appointment, shall be on probation as
may be prescribed.
(2) Any appointment of a civil servant by promotion or transfer to a
service or post may also be made on probation as may be prescribed.
Where, in respect of any service or post, the satisfactory completion of
probation includes the passing of a prescribed examination, test or course
or successful completion of any training, a person appointed on probation
to such service or post who, before the expiry of the original or extended
period of his probation, has failed to pass such examination or test or to
successfully complete course or the training shall, except as may be
(a) if he was appointed to such service or post by initial recruitment, be
(b) if he was appointed to such service or, post by promotion or transfer,
be reverted to the service or post from which he was promoted or
transferred and against which he holds a lien or, if there be no such
service or post, be discharged.
Provided that, in the case of initial appointment to a service or post, a
civil servant shall not be deemed to have completed his period of
probation satisfactorily until his character and antecedents have been
verified as satisfactory in the opinion of the appointing authority.
7. Confirmation.- (1) A person appointed on probation shall, on
satisfactory completion of his probation, be eligible for confirmation in
a service or, as the case may be, a post as may be prescribed.
(2) A civil servant promoted to a post on regular basis shall be eligible
for confirmation after rendering satisfactory service for the period
prescribed for confirmation therein.
(3) There shall be no confirmation against nay temporary post.
(4) A civil servant who, during the period of his service, was eligible to
be confirmed in any service or against any post retires from service
before being confirmed shall not, merely by reason of such retirement, be
refused confirmation in such service or post or any benefits accruing
(5) Confirmation of a civil servant in a service or post shall take effect
from the date of occurrence of permanent vacancy in that service or post
or from the date of continuous officiation, in such service or post,
whichever is later.
8. Seniority.- (1) For proper administration of a service, cadre, or post
the appointing authority shall cause a seniority list of the members for
the time being of such service, cadre or post to be prepared, but nothing
herein contained shall be construed to confer any vested right to a
particular seniority in such service, cadre or post as the case may be.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1), the seniority of a civil
servant shall be reckoned in relation to other civil servants belonging to
the same service or cadre whether serving in the same department or office
or not, as may be prescribed.
(3) Seniority on initial appointment to a service, cadre or post shall be
determined as may be prescribed.
(4) Seniority in a post, service or cadre to which a civil servant is
promoted shall take effect from the date of regular appointment to that
Provided that civil servants who are selected for promotion to a higher
post in one batch shall, on heir promotion to the higher post, retain
their inter se seniority as in the lower post.
9. Promotion – (1) A civil servant possessing such minimum qualifications
as may be prescribed shall be eligible for promotion to a higher post for
the time being reserved under the rules for departmental promotion in the
service or cadre to which he belongs:
“Provided that the posts of -
(a) Additional Secretary and Senior Joint Secretary may, in the public
interest, be filled by promotion from amongst officers of regularly
constituted Occupational Groups and services holding, on regular basis,
posts in Basic Pay Scale 20; and
(b) Secretary may, in the pubic interest, be filled by promotion from
amongst officers of regularly constituted Occupational Groups and services
holding, on regular basis, posts in Basic Pay Scale 21,
in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.”
(2) A post referred to in sub-section (1) may either be a selection post
or a non-selection post to which promotions shall be made as may be
(a) in the case of a selection post, on the basis of selection on merit;
(b) in the case of a non-selection post, on the basis of
(3) Promotion to posts in basic pay scales 20 and 21 and equivalent shall
be made on the recommendations of a Selection Board which shall be headed
by the Chairman, Federal Public Service Commission.
10. Posting and transfer.- Every civil servant shall be liable to serve
anywhere within or outside Pakistan, in any equivalent or higher post
under the Federal Government, or any Provincial Government, or local
authority, or a corporation or body set up or established by any such
Provided that nothing contained in this section shall apply to a civil
servant recruited specifically to serve in a particular area or region:
Provided further that, where a civil servant is required to serve in a
post outside his service or cadre, his terms and conditions of service as
to his pay shall not be less favorable than those to which he would have
been entitled if he had not been so required to serve.
11. Termination of service.- (1) The service of a civil servant may be
terminated without notice-
(i) during the initial or extended period of his probation:
Provided that, where such civil servant is appointed by promotion on
probation or, as the case may be, is transferred from one grade, service,
or post to another service, cadre or post, his service shall not be so
terminated so long as he holds a lien against his former post in such
service, cadre or post, but he shall be reverted to his former service,
cadre or post, as the case may be.
(ii) on the expiry of the initial or extended period of his employment; or
(iii) if the appointment is made ad hoc terminable on the appointment of a
person on the recommendation of the selection authority, on the
appointment of such person.
(2) Where, on the abolition of a post or reduction in the number of posts
in a cadre or service, the services of a civil servant are required to be
terminated, the person whose services are terminated shall ordinarily be
the one who is the most junior in such cadre or service.
(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of sub-section (1), but subject to the
provisions of sub-section (2), the service of a civil servant in temporary
employment or appointed adhoc shall be liable to termination on fourteen
days’ notice or pay in lieu thereof.
“11A. Absorption of civil servants rendered surplus.- Notwithstanding
anything contained in this Act, the rules, agreement, contract or the
terms and conditions of service a civil servant who is rendered surplus as
a result of re-organization or abolition of a Division, department, office
or abolition of a post in pursuance of any Government decision may be
appointed to a post, carrying basic pay scale equal to the post held by
him before such appointment, if he possesses the qualifications and
fulfils other conditions applicable to that post:
Provided that where no equivalent post is available he may be offered a
lower post in such manner, and subject to such conditions, as may be
prescribed and; where such civil servant is appointed to a lower post the
pay being drawn by him in the higher post immediately preceding his
appointment to a lower post shall remain protected.”.
12. Reversion to a lower post, etc.- (1) A civil servant appointed to a
higher post on adhoc, temporary or officiating basis shall be liable to
reversion to his lower post.
(2) No civil servant shall be dismissed or removed from service or reduced
in rank by an authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed.
(3) No such civil servant as aforesaid shall be dismissed or removed form
service, or reduced in rank, until he has been given a reasonable
opportunity of showing cause against the action proposed to be taken
Provided that this sub-section shall not apply:-
(i) where a civil servant is dismissed or removed from service or reduced
in rank on the ground of conduct which has led to his conviction on a
criminal charge; or
(ii) where the President or any person authorized by him under the rules
is satisfied, for reasons to be recorded in writing, that in the interest
of the security of Pakistan or any part thereof, it is not expedient to
give to that civil servant such an opportunity.”
12A Certain persons to be liable to removal, etc.- Notwithstanding
anything contained in this Act or in the terms and conditions of a civil
servant appointed or promoted during the period form the first day of
January, 1972, to the fifth day of July, 1977, the President or a person
authorized by him in this behalf may,-
(a) without notice, remove such a civil servant from service or revert him
to his lower post or grade, as the case may be, on such date as the
President or, as the case may be, the person so authorized may, in the
public interest, direct; or
(b) in a case where the appointment or promotion of such a civil servant
is found by the President or, as the case may be, the person so authorized
to suffer from a deficiency in the minimum length of service prescribed
for promotion or appointment to the higher grade, direct, without notice,
that seniority in such case shall count from the date the civil servant
completes the minimum length of service in such appointment or promotion
as the case may be.
“13. Retirement from service.- (1) A civil servant shall retire from
(i) on such date after he has completed twenty years of service qualifying
for pension or other retirement benefits as the competent authority may,
in public interest, direct; or
(ii) where no direction is given under clause (i), on the completion of
the sixtieth year of his age.
(2) No direction under clause (i) of sub-section (1) shall be made until
the civil servant has been informed in writing of the grounds on which it
is proposed to make the direction, and has been given a reasonable
opportunity of showing cause against the said direction.
Explanation: In this Section, “competent authority” means the appointing
authority prescribed in rule 6 of the Civil Servants (Appointment,
Promotion and Transfer) Rules, 1973.
14. Employment after retirement.-(1) A retired civil servant shall not be
re-employed under the Federal Government, unless such re-employment is
necessary in the public interest and is made with the Prior approval of
the authority next above the appointing authority:
Provided that, where the appointing authority is the President, such
re-employment may be ordered with the approval of the President.
(2) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the
Ex-Government Servants (Employment with Foreign Governments) (Prohibition)
Act, 1966 (XII of 1966), a civil servant may during leave preparatory to
retirement, or after retirement from Government service, seek any private
Provided that, where employment is sought by a civil servant while on
leave preparatory to retirement or within two years of the date of his
retirement, he shall obtain the prior approval of the prescribed
15. Conduct.- The conduct of a civil servant shall be regulated by rules
made, or instructions issued, by Government or a prescribed authority,
whether generally or in respect of a specified group or class of civil
16. Efficiency and discipline.- A civil servant shall be liable to
prescribed disciplinary action and penalties in accordance with the
17. Pay.- A civil servant appointed to a post or grade shall be entitled,
in accordance with the rules, to the pay sanctioned for such post or
Provided that, when the appointment is made on a current-charge basis or
by way of additional charge, his pay shall be fixed in the prescribed
Provided further that where a civil servant has, under an order which is
later set aside, been dismissed or removed from service or reduced n rank,
he shall, on the setting aside of such order, be entitled to such arrears
of pay as the authority setting aside such order may determine.
18. Leave.- A civil servant shall be allowed leave in accordance with the
leave rules applicable to him, provided that the grant of leave will
depend on the exigencies of service and be at the discretion of the
19. Pension and gratuity.- (1) On retirement form service, a civil servant
shall be entitled to receive such pension or gratuity as may be
(2) In the event of death of the civil servant, whether before or after
retirement, his family shall be entitled to receive such pension, or
gratuity, or both, as may be prescribed.
(3) No pension shall be admissible to a civil servant who is dismissed or
removed from service for reasons of discipline, but Government may
sanction compassionate allowance to such a civil servant, not exceeding
two-thirds of the pension or gratuity which would have been admissible to
him had he been invalided from service on the date of such dismissal or
(4) If the determination of the amount of pension or gratuity admissible
to a civil servant is delayed beyond one month of the date of his
retirement or death, he or his family, as the case may be, shall be paid
provisional such anticipatory pension or gratuity as may be determined by
the prescribed authority, according to the length of service of the civil
servant which qualifies for pension or gratuity; and any overpayment
consequent on such provisional payment shall be adjusted against the
amount of pension or gratuity finally determined as payable to such civil
servant or his family.
20. Provident Fund.- (1) Before the expiry of the third month of every
financial year, the accounts officer or other officer required to maintain
provident fund accounts shall furnish to every civil servant subscribing
to a provident fund the account of which he is required to maintain a
statement under his hand showing the subscriptions to including the
interest accruing thereon, if any, and withdrawals or advances from his
provident fund during the preceding financial year.
(2) Where any subscription made by a civil servant to his provident fund
has not been shown or credited in the account by the accounts or other
officer required to maintain such account, such subscription shall be
credited to the account of the civil servant on the basis of such evidence
as may be prescribed.
21. Benevolent Fund and Group Insurance.- All civil servants and their
families shall be entitled to the benefits admissible under the Central
Employees Benevolent fund and group Insurance Act, 1969 (II of 1969), and
the rules made there under.
22. Right of appeal or representation.-(1) Where a right to prefer an
appeal or apply for review in respect of any order relating to the terms
and conditions of his service is provided to a civil servant under any
rules applicable to him, such appeal or application shall except as may be
otherwise prescribed be made within thirty days of the date of such order.
(2) Where no provision for appeal or review exists under the rules in
respect of any order or class of orders, a civil servant aggrieved by any
such order may, within thirty days of the communication to him of such
order, make a representation against it to the authority next above the
authority which made the order:
Provided that no representation shall lie on matters relating to the
determination of fitness of a person to hold a particular post or to be
promoted to a higher post or grade.
CHAPTER III.- MISCELLANEOUS
23. Saving.- Nothing in his Act or in any rule shall be construed to limit
or abridge the power of the President to deal with the case of any civil
servant in such manner as may appear to him to be just and equitable:
Provided that, where this Act or any rule is applicable to the case of a
civil servant, the case shall not be dealt with in any manner less
favourable to him than that provided by this Act or such rule.
23A. Indemnity.- No suit, prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie
against a civil servant for anything done in his official capacity which
is in good faith done or intended to be done under this Act or the rules,
instructions or directions made or issued there under.
23B. Jurisdiction barred.- Save as provided under this Act and the Service
Tribunals Act, 1973 (LDD of 1973), or the rules made there under, no order
made or proceedings taken under this Act, or the rules made there under by
the President or any officer authorized by him shall be called in question
in any Court and no injunction shall be granted by any Court in respect of
any decision made, or proceedings taken in pursuance of any power
conferred by, or under, this Act or the rules made there under.
24. Removal of difficulties.- If any difficulty arises in giving effect to
any of the provisions of this Act, the President may make such order, not
inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, as may appear to him to be
necessary for the purpose of removing the difficulty:
Provided that no such power shall be exercised after the expiry of one
year from the coming into force of this Act.
25. Rules.- (1) The President or any person authorized by the President in
this behalf, may make such rules as appear to him to be necessary or
expedient for carrying out the purposes of this Act.
(2) Any rules, orders or instructions in respect of any terms and
conditions of service of civil servants duly made or issued by an
authority competent to make them and in force immediately before the
commencement of this Act shall, in so far as such rules, orders or
instructions are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act, be
deemed to be rules made under this Act.
26. Repeal.- The Civil Servants Ordinance, 1973 (XIV of 1973), is hereby